School of Arts and Social Sciences


Recent Submissions

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    Impacts of Using Multi Agency Command Centre Strategy on National Security at Isebania Trans-Border, Migori County, Kenya
    (Open Access Library Journal, 2023-09-23) Odhiambo , Elijah Onyango Standslause;
    National Security of any nation is the epitome of development and prosperity. The term evolved from simpler definitions that emphasized freedom from military threat and from political coercion. A nation has security when it has the ability to preserve the nation’s physical integrity and territory, to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on reasonable terms, to preserve its nature, institutions and governance against disruption from outside; and control its borders. The study examined the impacts of using Multi Agency Command Centre Strategy on National security at Isebania transborder, Migori County, Kenya. The study employed Decision Theory. Survey design was utilized which involved collection of data on a number of variables. Target population comprised of 980 persons (800 business persons, 70 village elders, 60 border Officers, 43 Police Officers, 6 Chiefs and 1 Assistant county commissioner (ACCs). The study considered a 30% of each category of sample population and therefore, the sample size for the study was 294 (240 business men and women, 21 village elders, 18 border officers, 12 police officers and 2 chiefs, 1 ACC). Interviews, Questionnaires, and Focus group discussion tools were used to collect data from the respondents. Data was analyzed by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27. The result was presented in form of graphs. Findings revealed that Multi-Agency Command Centre as a strategy views border security with a bird’s eye view, as used by Foucault where in our case multi-agency command center as both security planning and a coordination tool where all the relevant leaders in an emergency gather under one chair to plan, execute and pool resources and harness synergies as evidenced by this research as the public view it. This does not mean that the tool is ineffective by virtue of the fact that the public is not knowledgeable, but its ineffectiveness is demonstrated by dence that National Intelligence Service does not detect and curb crime. Therefore, the study recommends that training needs to be enhanced more, especially on trust leaders about Multi-Agency Command Centre and competencies instilled on how to lead and better harness the synergies of all participating agencies as per their specialization. There is dire need to deploy more intelligence personnel at the borders to improve effectiveness of securing our borders.
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    Securitization and Mercantilism Theories in the Ukraine-Russia War: Interplay of Security and Economic Interests
    (World Journal of Research and Review (WJRR), 2023-08-31) Odhiambo , Elijah Onyango standslause;
    This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the Ukraine-Russia war, utilizing securitization theory and mercantilism as theoretical frameworks and drawing upon secondary data sources. The study explores the intricate interplay between security concerns and economic interests that have shaped the conflict and its broader implications for regional stability and global dynamics. By analyzing the securitization of ethnic and territorial issues and examining economic motivations and strategies, this research sheds light on the complex relationship between security and economics in the context of the war. Securitization theory, as developed by the Copenhagen School, focuses on the process by which issues are constructed as security threats. In the case of the Ukraine-Russia war, both parties have strategically employed securitization to legitimize their actions and mobilize support. Russia has securitized the protection of ethnic Russians in Ukraine, framing its intervention as crucial for national security. Conversely, Ukraine has securitized the defense of its territorial integrity against Russian aggression. These securitization narratives have played a significant role in shaping the conflict dynamics. Mercantilism, an economic theory rooted in the pursuit of economic interests, trade and resource acquisition, provides insights into the economic motivations and strategies of the conflicting parties. Russia's control over energy resources, particularly natural gas, has allowed it to exert economic leverage over Ukraine. This control has influenced Ukraine's energy security and aspirations for economic autonomy. Ukraine, in turn, seeks to diversify its energy sources and reduce dependence on Russian resources to enhance its economic stability and security. The analysis of the interplay between securitization and mercantilism in the Ukraine-Russia war reveals a mutual reinforcement between security concerns and economic interests. Russia's securitization of ethnic Russians aligns with its economic leverage, while Ukraine's securitization of territorial integrity aligns with its pursuit of economic autonomy. This interplay underscores the complexity of the conflict, necessitating comprehensive approaches to address the intertwined security and economic dimensions. The findings of this research contribute to a deeper understanding of the multidimensional nature of international conflicts. Policymakers can benefit from considering the interplay between security concerns and economic interests in similar conflicts, aiming to strike a balance for long-term stability and resolution. By integrating securitization theory and mercantilism, this study provides valuable insights into the Ukraine-Russia war and its broader implications for international relations.
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    Proverbs as a Teaching Medium in Kenyan Competency Based Curriculum
    (International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 2022-08-31) ANYONJE , FLORENCE M.; OLOO, OLUOCH MONICA
    The Kenya Government through the Ministry of Education launched a new system of education referred to as Kenyan Competency Based Curriculum (KCBC) in 2017.The new curriculum is designed to develop and apply knowledge and skills in real life situations. Core competencies in KCBC are: communication and collaboration, self-efficacy, critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and imagination, citizenship, digital literacy and learning to learn. It is expected that at the end of the learning period the learners will have these values inculcated in them: love, responsibility, respect, unity, peace, patriotism and integrity. This paper proceeds from the understanding that teaching methodologies play an important role in achieving set objectives. The new curriculum thus provides a unique opportunity to the stakeholders in education to excavate the indigenous African knowledge in the course of imparting the required skills to the learners. This paper utilises one important genre of this knowledge: proverbs. The paper will examine how proverbs can be used in the teaching and learning context to inculcate moral values spelt out in KCBC.The parents, teachers and the community have a role to play in bringing up morally upright citizens and this training should start at an early age. Proverbs can provide learners with a genuine learning context, a focus to communicate, appreciate their cultural heritage, develop emotional intelligence and creativity. Proverbs from some Kenyan communities will be used in this paper to show that indeed if used in the instructional process, students can learn values from an early age and be good at communication.
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    Politeness Principles in President Kenyatta’s 59th Madaraka Day Speech to Kenyans on 1st June 2022 at Uhuru Gardens, Nairobi, Kenya
    (International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 2023-03-31) Oloo , Oluoch Monica; Anyonje, Muteheli Florence
    Apart from transmitting information successfully, communication needs to be carried out in a way that creates solidarity and intimacy between the parties involved.Politeness is key in communication as it aids in achieving effective communication. This article examines the maxims of politeness principles in Kenyatta‟s last Madaraka Day speech on 1st June 2022. The analysis is based on Leech‟s (1983) theory of politeness. The data is sourced from the internet and the analysis is done by first, reading the speech, identifying the sentences in which the maxims of politeness have been used and describing them in the context of the speech. The findings revealed that being the last Madaraka Day during his tenure as president, the president intended to leave a legacy of the gains made during his 10-year reign. He used politeness maxims to effectively communicate the gains of his administration and appreciate the freedom fighters as well as create solidarity with Kenyans.
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    Level of Student Disaster Risk Reduction Awareness in Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2023-09-13) Odhiambo, Rev. Sgt. Rtd. Dr.;
    The recurring, widespread and sudden nature of fire and floods disasters pose high degree of risks frequently in secondary schools. However, the capacity of the affected secondary schools is limited due to paucity of student’s disaster risk reduction awareness. The study endeavoured to assess the level of student disaster risk reduction awareness in secondary schools in Kisumu County. The study grounded on Planned Behaviour and Disaster Preparedness theory while adopting a descriptive research design. A sample size of 86 out of 172 public secondary schools was used. All principals from sampled schools were selected. Also, 172 students comprising of 2 student leaders, one Head of Department from each selected schools were sampled totalling to 86, and 4 ministry of education officials from Kenya School of Curriculum Development were purposively sampled. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedule. Qualitative data collected was put under themes consistent with the research objective. Quantitative data was coded and entered in the computer for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, means and frequencies were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that there was no disaster risk reduction and resilience in current curricula in secondary school. Students lacked capacity to respond to disasters in secondary schools in Kisumu County since they lacked disaster management training. The study recommends formulation of effective and practical disaster syllabi, alongside specialized training for teachers who would be delivering DRR education which builds on students’ existing knowledge and experience by developing additional competencies needed for effective disaster management. Rehearsal drills in disaster preparedness must be done in secondary schools by students since it re-emphases points made in separate training programs and test the systems as a whole and invariably revealing several gaps that otherwise might have been overlooked.
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    The effectiveness of Mass Media Frames in promoting Organic Farming practices in Kenya
    (Great Journs, 2023-04-30) Koech, Leornard
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of mass media frames in promoting organic farming practices in Kenya. The study was guided by Social Learning Theory is highly relevant to the study on the effectiveness of mass media frames in promoting organic farming practices in Kenya. This theory posits that people learn by observing others, and that media can be a powerful tool for social learning. The study employed a quasi experimental design with pre-test and post-test measurements to determine the impact of mass media frames on promoting organic farming practices in Kenya. The study used purposive sampling to select farmers who practice organic farming in Kenya. The farmers were selected from different regions across the country to ensure diversity in the sample. Additionally, a control group of farmers who do not practice organic farming will be selected to establish a baseline for comparison. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to collect data. The following data collection methods was used: A pre-test survey was conducted before the mass media campaign, and a post-test survey was conducted after the campaign to measure changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviorstowards organic farming practices. Focus group discussions was conducted to gain insights into the farmers' perceptions of the mass media frames and their effectiveness in promoting organic farming practices. The study used both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the quantitative data collected from the surveys. The qualitative data collected from the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were analyzed thematically. Ethical considerations such as informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy was observed throughout the study. The researcher concluded that, the effectiveness of mass media frames in promoting organic farming practices in Kenya can be evaluated by measuring changes in farmers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards organic farming practices, as well as the reach and engagement of the mass media campaign. The findings may vary depending on the specific campaign, the target audience, and the context in which the campaign is implemented. However, an effectivemass media campaign should lead to increased awareness and knowledge of organic farming practices among farmers, a positive shift in attitudes towards organic farming practices, and increased adoption of organic farming practices by farmers. Additionally, the campaign should have a significant reach and engagement with the target audience, and any challenges and limitations identified should be addressed to ensure the campaign's sustainability. The findings on the effectiveness of mass media frames in promoting organic farming practices in Kenya can inform policy and practice in the agricultural sector, contribute to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns in promoting sustainable agriculture practices, and guide future mass media campaigns aimed at promoting sustainable agriculture practices in Kenya and other similar contexts. Based on the findings of the study on the effectiveness of mass media frames in promoting organic farming practices in Kenya, the following recommendations can be made: Ensure that the mass media campaign is designed to meet the specific needs and interests of the target audience, using appropriate language and channels of communication to effectively reach and engage the audience. Develop and implement comprehensive follow-up support and resources to enable farmers to adopt and sustain organic farming practices after the mass media campaign.
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    Relationship between Watching ‘Gengetone’ Music and Drug Abuse among the Youth in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya
    (East African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2021-04-30) Koech, Leonard K.
    Drugs, substance and alcohol abuse by many youths is as a result of various factors. Research conducted in the past have looked at how mass media channels (video and TV) and their influence on abuse of drugs and other substances among the youth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how drug-related information portrayed on Gengetone music influences drugs and substance abuse among youths in Eldoret town. The research objectives were to investigate how the acceptability level of ‘Gengetone’ music and videos among youths, to examine ways in which ‘Gengetone music lyrics communicate information on drugs, substance and alcohol abuse and establish the effect of listening of Gengetone music on drugs and substance abuse among youths in Uasin Gishu County. The study adopted George Gerbner’s Cultivation Theory. The study utilised descriptive survey. Questionnaires and interviews were utilised to collect data from selected youths aged 20 – 30 years residing in Eldoret town four estates numbering 80 and one county officer in charge of NACADA North Rift office. Analysis of data was done through qualitative (content analysis method) and quantitative approaches (descriptive statistics); The study found out that indeed lyrics, images and videos contained in some Gengetone music promoted drugs, substance and alcohol abuse by young people in the study area. This means that music preference performed a significant role in determining the level of drugs and substance abuse by youth in Eldoret town. This calls for stakeholder involvement in educating the upcoming artist on the importance of developing Gengetone music that is clean and creates awareness on the dangers of youth addiction to drugs, other substances and alcohol.
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    The Dominant Mass Media Frames used in Kenya to Portray Organic Farming Practice
    (2023-04-30) Koech, Leornard
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dominant mass media frames used in Kenya to portray organic farming practices. This study involved systematically analyzing the content of media messages, such as news articles, television programs, and social media posts, to identify the dominant frames used to portray organic farmingpractices. This approach involved identifying relevant media sources and analyzing their coverage of organic farming over a specified period, looking for patterns in the frames used and how they are presented .This study involved collecting data from a sample of the public to understand their perceptions and attitudes towards organic farming, as well as the sources of information they rely on for their knowledge about organic farming. This approach involved designing a survey questionnaire, selecting a representative sample of the population, and collecting and analyzing the data collected .Depending on the methodology chosen, researchers needed to carefully select their sample. For example, if using content analysis, researchers needed to identify relevant media sources to analyze. If conducting surveys or focus groups, researchers needed to select a representative sample of the population. The Researcher collected data from relevant sources, such as media outlets, members of the public, or stakeholders in the organic farming industry. Depending on the methodology chosen, data collection involved analyzing media content, conducting surveys or interviews, or facilitating focus group discussions (Sapsford, 1996).The Researcher analyzed the data collected to identify the dominant mass media frames used to portray organic farming practices in Kenya. This analysis involved identifying patterns in media coverage or public attitudes towards organic farming, or identifying key themes and topics that emerge from interviews or focus group discussions. The researcher concluded that dominant mass media frames used in Kenya to portray organic farming practices are diverse and complex, reflecting a range of social, economic, cultural, and environmental factors. These frames are influenced by various actors, including media outlets, policymakers, advocacy groups, and consumers. Agenda-setting andframing theoriesprovided useful frameworks for understanding the ways in which the dominant media frames are constructed, disseminated, and received by different audiences. They highlight the importance of media in shaping public perceptions and attitudes towards organic farming practices, as well as their implications for consumer behavior and policy decisions related to organic farming. The findings of this study suggested that the dominant mass media framesused in Kenya to portray organic farming practices had significant implications for consumer behavior and policy decisions related to organic farming. By promoting positive perceptions of organic farming, these frames helped to support the growth of the organic farming sector in Kenya and had positive implications for health, environmental sustainability, and economic development. Media outlets, policymakers, and advocacy groups should work towards promoting positive media frames that highlight the benefits of organic farming practices. This can help to increase public awareness and understanding of organic farming practices, and can promote consumer demand for organic products. There is a need for the development of effective communication strategies that target different audiences, including consumers, farmers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. These strategies should be designed to promote greater awareness and understanding of the benefits and challenges of organic farming practices, and to dispel any misconceptions or myths about organic farming.
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    The Relationship between Political Administrative Interface and Leadership Performance in the Ministry of Petroleum of the Republic of South Sudan
    (Open Access Library Journal, 2023-05-24) Odhiambo, ,Elijah Onyango Standslause;
    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of political adminis trative interface on leadership performance in the Ministry of Petroleum of the Republic of South Sudan. The study was guided by Leader Member Ex change Theory. The study adopted quantitative descriptive research design targeting 1973 employees working in the Ministry of Petroleum. The re searcher adopted Yamane sampling formula to arrive at 333 employees as the sample size. The main data source was primary data collected using ques tionnaires and interviews. Descriptive statistics techniques were used to ana lyse quantitative data which include frequencies, percentages and mean. Re gression analysis technique was used to analyse the inferential statistics and to test the set hypothesis. The findings were presented in the form of tables and figures. The study established significant influence of political administrative interface on leadership performance in the Ministry of Petroleum and to as sess intervention strategies that could be adopted to improve public leader ship effectiveness in the Ministry of Petroleum. The study further concluded that the poor leadership performance in the Ministry of Petroleum of the Republic of South Sudan was due to weak political administrative interface caused by the existing ineffective organizational structures. The study re commends that the Ministry of Petroleum should enhance the institutional structures for improved leadership performance there should be checks and balances in the operation of the ministry to achieve the desired accountabili ty. Such checks and balances will go a long achieving operational efficiency and optimum resource utilization.
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    Sustainable Peacebuilding Opportunities
    (International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research, 2023-02-05) Odhiambo, Rev. Sgt. Rtd. Dr. Elijah Onyango Standslause
    The study points to issues that have greatly contributed to the increase in peacebuilding opportunities for countries in conflict. Local peacebuilding entities are in of themselves the prime opportunity of sustainable peacebuilding. The “local turn” debate and the recognition of local peacebuilding entities as key players in peace has increased the agency of local peacebuilding committees. The prospect of home-grown solutions through the “local turn” has also been attractive because of perceived lower cost of delivering peacebuilding results. This is perhaps why there was a rush to institutionalise and recognise local peacebuilding entities in many countries including Ghana in 2005 and Kenya in 2008. With recognition came the legitimisation of local peacebuilding committees which was both political and legal. These two policy directions taken in countries such as Kenya led to even greater opportunities for local peacebuilding entities because they came with the backing of policy makers who suddenly saw the potential of these entities for advancing their peace agenda. The legal recognition of Local Peacebuilding Committees led to the creation of local policy frameworks to guide the work of local peacebuilding entities, even requiring them to be registered and get a Government license to operate. For example, Kenya produced a peacebuilding policy and law. These policies have elevated the notion of "local turn" into concrete action for peacebuilding. Therefore, this article examined the opportunities for sustainable peacebuilding in Mombasa County based on the study question.
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    Ethical Considerations in Authorship and Postgraduate Supervision in Universities in Kenya
    (Journal of Education and Practice, 2023-05-31) Recha, Charles W.; Wanyonyi, Mulalu
    The emergence of knowledge economy has put premium on higher education. This has led to a rise in the number of postgraduate training and reforms in higher education. Research, a core mandate of institutions of higher learning, should enable states to meet development needs. Research for development will require the highest standards possible in the conduct of research. This has led to calls for research ethics to protect individuals, communities and the environment. In this study, we explore ethical considerations in authorship and postgraduate supervision in universities in Kenya using a desktop survey. The study established that in Kenya, Universities Standards and Guidelines 2014 and Harmonized Criteria and Guidelines for Appointment and Promotion of Academic Staff in Universities in Kenya have apportioned the highest score on research and publication for appointment and promotion of academic staff in universities. This is likely to trigger unethical practices, increase authorship disputes and undermine collaborative research. The existing framework does not provide for a criteria on authorship listing; and the mandate of Institutional Ethics Review Committees (IERCs) is limited to approval of research proposal and treatment of human participants. Universities in Kenya have developed procedures for appointment and specified the responsibilities of supervisors of postgraduate students. However, very little has been done to train and inculcate research ethics in postgraduate students and supervisors. To mitigate these, universities should develop criterion for awarding publication credit. IERCs should expand their mandate to include ethical consideration beyond a research proposal and universities should train supervisors on supervision and research ethics before appointment. Further research is required to determine the preparedness of supervisors of postgraduate students in Kenya in the responsible conduct of research.
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    The South African Commission for Gender Equality Addressing Challenges of Rural Women
    (Pathways to African Feminism and Development Women’s Economic Empowerment, 2022-03-31) Waiganjo , Anthony Gathambiri
    Over the years, empowerment of women has increasingly attracted huge attention in the scholarly world. Most of the scholarly works on empowerment seem to focus on pro-women policies, which appear attractive only on paper without critically paying attention to how those policies translate into reality. In South Africa, rural women continue to suffer despite the nation having one of the best constitutions globally. The South African Commission for Gender Equality (CGE), among other roles, is man dated to advance the concerns for the rural women. The main aim of this study is to investigate setbacks but also opportunities that the CGE encounters in fulfilling its mandate of addressing strategic gender interests of rural women. The paper also interrogates the social cultural challenges that those women face in accessing their rights through the CGE. The main geographical scope for this study is KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape provinces because they are the areas populated with the Zulu and Xhosa communities who are the main targets of social cultural complexities highlighted in this paper. The study arrives at its findings through a qualitative study where data was analysed and corroborated with CGE operational documents, provisions in the Constitution, policy documents, monetary and evaluation reports, minutes of proceedings and paper publications. The study argues that the CGE cannot effectively empower rural women when the link with other statutory bodies and Civil Society Organizations nationally is weak. Also, the study argues that for CGE to effectively empower rural women, it must directly relate with local rural African Women Studies Centre 72 1.0 Introduction Due to a concentrated focus on eliminating racial segregation, before 1994 South Africa paid minimal attention to the gender equality agenda. The concerns about gender equality emerged only after a series of engagements by South African women who indefatigably pushed for gender equality to be listed among the significant agendas for the nation. Thus, buoyed by a ray of hope after Rolihlahla Mandela’s ascendancy into power in 1994, South African women formulated a Charter that exhorted the nation to put the welfare of women to the fore. The document was presented to Mandela who made sure that gender concerns became a central subject in the negotiation process prior to the writing up of the Constitution. In order to ensure that women issues were not overlooked, the negotiators settled on avoiding a structure where there is a specific ministry/department of women. Thus, a NGM (National Gender Machinery) was instituted. The Machinery consisted of the civil society organizations, the executive, the legislature, and self-governing bodies (Rai, 2018; African Development Bank, 2009). The establishment of the NGM was for the advancement of the status of women. A number of international women’s conferences such as the 1975 Mexico Convention, the Beijing Conference, the CEDAW had called for the national states to put gender concerns at the centre of the policy-making process. The necessity for a NGM was accentuated first during the Conference in Mexico City in 1975 (Rai, 2018). The South African women constitute the highest share of underprivileged population in the country. This population is still affected by apartheid legacies (racism, sexism, authoritarianism, male chauvinism).The Commission on Gender Equality (CGE) aims at fixing those ‘ghosts of the past’ (as Ramphele, 2008 calls them) which are enmeshed in policies that engender marginalization of women. In spite of South Africa ratifying international protocols, I argue that the gender policy agenda is still far elusive as those neo-apartheid elements are still prevalent. Thus, this paper seeks to address these principal theoretical questions: women and consult them from the grassroots and not solely rely on “elitist women” who risk misrepresenting or even ‘under-representing’ women interests.
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    Influence of Smallholder Farmers’ Socio-economic Characteristics on and Perceived Benefits of Organic Agriculture Farming
    The decision to adopt an agricultural technology is categorized into characteristics specific to farmers and their households and socio-economic factors. The difference in factors influencing the smallholder farmers' adoption of Organic Farming (OF) practices varies across the world. Thus, this paper investigates the influence of smallholder farmers' socio-economic characteristics on the adoption of OF in Kisii Central, Kisii County. The study adopted mixed-method research that involved a household survey and key informants. The results indicate that the major socio-economic characteristics influencing smallholder farmers’ adoption of organic farming were farm size (79%), income (73%), family size (67%), and age (66%). In addition, there is a positive correlation between education and the use of crop residues (r=0.113), animal manure (r=0.114), and cover crop (r=0.121). The study recommends that promoters of OF consider specific socio-economic characteristics of the farmers in adopting OF.
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    Smallholder Farmers’ Practice and Perception of Organic Farming in Kisii Central Sub - County, Kisii County, Kenya
    (IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), 2022-12-24) Recha, Charles W.
    Organic farming (OF) is known to contribute to: healthy living, increase in farm income, and safe and sustainable environments. It is in view of the benefits that OF systems are encouraged across countries in SubSaharan Africa, including Kenya. This paper investigates smallholder farmers’ practice and perception of organic farming in Kisii Central Sub – County, Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey research design where a total of 306 respondents were interviewed. Results show that nearly all (97%) of smallholder farmers are practicing OF with use of animal manure (87%), crop rotation (72%) and cover crops (55%) as the predominant practices. The high number of farmers practicing OF can be attributed to information on OF farming being easily available (52%); strong agreement on positive effects of OF farming on environment (69%), and the anticipated future demand for OF products (84%). This study recommends that promoters of organic farming should take note of the positive rating and perception of organic farming.
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    Influence of Smallholder Farmers’ Socio-economic Characteristics on and Perceived Benefits of Organic Agriculture Farming
    The decision to adopt an agricultural technology is categorized into characteristics specific to farmers and their households and socio-economic factors. The difference in factors influencing the smallholder farmers' adoption of Organic Farming (OF) practices varies across the world. Thus, this paper investigates the influence of smallholder farmers' socio-economic characteristics on the adoption of OF in Kisii Central, Kisii County. The study adopted mixed-method research that involved a household survey and key informants. The results indicate that the major socio-economic characteristics influencing smallholder farmers’ adoption of organic farming were farm size (79%), income (73%), family size (67%), and age (66%). In addition, there is a positive correlation between education and the use of crop residues (r=0.113), animal manure (r=0.114), and cover crop (r=0.121). The study recommends that promoters of OF consider specific socio-economic characteristics of the farmers in adopting OF.
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    The impact of youth financial empowerment in promoting peace, stability, and development: A study of selected faith-based organizations
    (International Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, 2022-08-04) Korir, Simion Kiprotich;
    Regardless of the religious affiliation, the needs and expectations of young people in society are not easy to meet and sustain. Subsequently, different faith-based organizations have responded in different ways resulting in varied levels of success and failure. This paper sought to highlight lessons that the church in Kenya can learn from the Islamic faith based institutions in relation to youth empowerment programs. The goal of the research was to unveil information that would facilitate the enhancement of the present empowerment programs alongside devising strategies on how to develop others to ensure that the needs of the young people are adequately addressed. Using the explorative strategy to survey relevant literature, the study established that the Somali youth empowerment model is structured. On the other hand, most Kenyan churches lack a structured model of financing. Subsequently, Christian faith-based organizations should be encouraged to establish her independent financial institution that can lend to the youth using biblical principles that are not exploitative in nature. Those that already have such in place should improve their operational framework to realize better outcomes. A low interest loan culture should be underscored to encourage many youth to borrow so that they can actively participate in Entrepreneurship.
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    The Church as an Agent of Behavioural Change:
    (International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD), 2022-06-30) Korir, Simion Kiprotich; Ayanga, Hazel;
    The church is tasked with the responsibility of being a transformative agent. Societal transformation is an integral part of the church’s mission that is complementary to the focal mission which is relay the Good News of Jesus Christ, invite populations to repentance and cultivates faith alongside baptizing them. Minimal studies exist that suggest practical mechanisms that the church can use to discourage Christian youth from engagement in unproductive political activities. This paper explores ways in which the church can affect behavioral change among young people in an effort to guide the young people who decide to engage in political activities. The main objective was to establish on how the church can become an agent of behavioral change. It is evident that some young people are bribed to engage in negative behaviour in times of political electioneering. They accept the money because they are unemployed and generally live below the poverty line. The article explores what the church can do to change this trend. The study established that some Christian youth who engage in political activities do so because of dire conditions that threaten their survival. Additionally, the church has a significant role to play as an agent of behavioural change and subsequently guide the youth to engage in productive politics. The study recommends that youth should be guided through structured workshops, trainings, and mentorship programs to help them make the right decision on whether or not to engage in unproductive political activities.
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    A global perspective on soil science education at third educational level :
    (Elsevier, 2022-07-10) Recha, Charles W.;
    The pivotal role of soil as a resource is not fully appreciated by the general public. Improving education in soil science represents a challenge in a world where soil resources are under serious threat. Today’s high school students, the world’s future landowners, agriculturalists, and decision makers, have the potential to change society’s apathy towards soils issues. This research aimed to compare the level of soil education in high and/or secondary schools in forty-three countries worldwide, together comprising 62% of the world’s population. Comparisons were made between soil science content discussed in educationally appropriate textbooks via a newly proposed soil information coefficient (SIC). Interviews with teachers were undertaken to better understand how soil science education is implemented in the classroom. Statistical analyses were investigated using clustering. Results showed that gaps in soil science education were most commonly observed in countries where soil science is a non-compulsory or optional subject. Soil science concepts are predominantly a part of geography or environmental science curricula. Consequently, considerable variability in soil science education systems among investigated countries exists. Soil information coefficient‘s outcomes demonstrated that a methodological approach combining textbooks and the use of modern digitally based strategies in the educational process significantly improved soil education performances. Overall, soil science education is under-represented in schools worldwide. Dynamic new approaches are needed to improve pivotal issues such as: i) promoting collaborations and agreements between high school and universities; ii) encouraging workshops and practical exercises such as field activities; and, iii) implementing technology tools. This, in turn, will prepare the next generation to contribute meaningfully towards solving present and future soil problems.
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    Competing and Conflicting Power Dynamics in Waqfs in Kenya, 1900-2010
    (Bayreuth African Studies Online, 2018-01-01) Chembea, Suleiman A.
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    Negotiating Muslim–Christian Relations in Kenya through Waqfs, 1900–2010
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-07-27) Chembea, S. Athuman
    Waqfs provided socio-economic security for the progeny of endowers and for other social welfare causes. Being thus guaranteed socio-economic well-being, these beneficiaries were antithetical to ruling elites in Muslim dynasties and Christian colonial powers, which led to the establishment of policies and institutions to control waqfs and check their growing influence. This development was not only counter to normative precepts but also set minority Muslims in predominantly Christian societies at odds with non-Muslim states. To what extent did civil policies and judgements influence waqfs? How did Muslims negotiate the secular state constructs vis-à-vis waqf practices? How did secular state control of waqfs influence the dynamics of Christian–Muslim relations? This discussion, based on ethnographic research in Kenyan coastal areas, employs two theoretical frameworks – Asad’s ‘Islam as a discursive tradition’ and Scott’s concept of ‘symbolic (ideological) resistance’. The article draws mainly on the perspective of the Muslim minority in Kenya and argues that state control of waqfs in Kenya did not only interfere with normative practices but also partly laid the ground for the present-day economic and political marginalization and exclusion of Muslims, leading to suspicion and ambiguous relations with their Christian compatriots