ItemDesign Thinking and Innovation in the Informal Industries in Kenya(Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 2023-05-30) Oringo, James OdhiamboIn the recent past there have been calls to have Kenyan products labeled ‘Made in Kenya’. By doing so, the proponents believe that products ‘Made in Kenya’ will flock the local stores and even find their way to the foreign markets, thereby making Kenya proud of itself as well as earning the much needed foreign exchange. While ‘Made in Kenya’ labeled products would be a great step forward to Kenya’s economic wellbeing, showcase talents and skills of the youth and a boost to its image in the global market, the low technology predominantly used in Kenya and lack of design thinking, still remain the greatest impediment to innovation. Using low technology in manufacturing usually results in high production costs and lack of capacity to launch mass production in response to acute increase in market demands. For example, the informal manufacturing sector in Kenya commonly referred to as Jua Kali, is a collection of semi-organized, unregulated, smaller ventures that employ a large number of people and rely on low-level technologies. A significant amount of industrial output is devoted to meeting basic requirements, such as the provision of low-cost consumer goods and services. Wood and furniture, metal products, glass and pottery, clothes, and leather are all produced in this industry. The lack of design thinking and low-level technology used in the production process obviously results in more man-hour on each unit produced, yet this is rarely considered on the final price of the product. The prices to a large scale, are usually concerned with the cost of materials without considering other hidden costs. The drive is to make the products affordable to low-income consumers, in order to satisfy the traders’ basic needs. In a wider perspective, this study focused on the application of design thinking and its impact on innovations in the informal industries in Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to establish; the application of design thinking as a system of feasibility to increase innovation in the informal industries in Kenya, the application of design thinking as a system of desirability to increase innovation in the informal industries in Kenya and its impact on the innovation in the informal industries in Kenya, as well as the application of design thinking as a system of viability to increase innovation in the informal industries in Kenya. This study reviewed secondary sources and investigations others have previously conducted in relation to the title of the study. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze data. The process of analysis began with the development of the research questions, then the identification of the dataset, and thorough evaluation of the dataset. Our findings deepen the current understanding about policy innovation and technological intervention in the informal industries in Kenya. The findings could also benefit the Government of Kenya, Kenya Association of Manufacturers and Juakali Associations, in terms of policy formulation and enhancement of sector performance. ItemModerating Effect Of Financial Innovations On The Relationship Between Interest Rates And Financial Performance Of Commercial Banks In Kenya(International Journal of Innovative Finance and Economics Research 1, 2022-09-30) Mutai, Nelly ChelangatProfitability of commercial banks in Kenya have been declining since 2010 which was largely attributed to macro-economic factors, fiscal policies introduced by central bank of Kenya and market activities such as issuance of bonds and capping of interest rates. There has also been increased integration due to embracement of financial innovations in the banking sector however the moderating effects of Financial innovations on the relationship between GDP per capita and financial performance is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of financial innovation on the relationship between interest rates and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was based on two theories: Interest parity theory and Constraint Induced Financial Innovation Theory. The study utilized secondary data for 10-year period as from 2011 to 2020. The target population of the study was 42 commercial banks that are licensed and supervised by the Central Bank of Kenya. Secondary panel data on financial performance of Commercial Banks was obtained from the individual institutions’ financial reports while data on macroeconomic factors will be obtained from both Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Return on assets was used to measure financial performance. The study found a moderating effect of interest rates on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya (b= -5.292, t= -2,202, p=0.028. This study concludes that when a bank’s innovations are at the highest, it can achieve a very high Return on assets even when it keeps it interest rates very low. The study recommends that banks should implement the highest degree of innovations, which will enable them achieve very high Return on assets even when they keep their interest rates very low. Keywords: Financial Innovations, Interest rates, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks. ItemEffect of Herding Factor on Investment Decisions among Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi County, Kenya(Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management, 2020-11-30) Barno, Leah JemutaiThis study sought to determine the effect of herd factors on investment decisions among small and micro enterprises in Nairobi County. The study was premised on the behavioural portfolio. Positivism paradigm was deployed. The study adopts explanatory research design. The target population were 102,821 firm owners. A sample of 383 respondents was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The collected data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Linear regression models were used to establish the relationship between herd factors and investment decisions. The findings revealed that herding factors was found to have positive influence on investment decision (P = 0.450 < 0.05). The study recommends that firms should improve on herd factors which improved investment. This would enhance better decision investment decision improving financial performance of the SMEs. ItemModerating Effect of Financial Literacy on Relationship between Anchoring and Investment Decision among SMEs in Nairobi County(East African Journal of Business and Economics, 2021-03-24) Barno, Leah JemutaiModerating effect of Financial Literacy on Relationship between Anchoring and Investment Decision among SMEs in Nairobi County. The study was premised on the regrets theory. Methods/materials: The positivism paradigm was deployed. The study adopts an explanatory research design. The target population was 102,821 firm owners. A sample of 383 respondents was selected using the stratified random sampling technique. Multiple hierarchical linear regression models were used to establish moderating effects of financial literacy. Findings: Anchoring factors positively influenced investment decision (β = 0.173, p < 0.05). The study also found that financial literacy moderates the relationship anchoring and investment decisions (β = .92, p > 0.05, ∆R 2 = .07). Conclusion/Practical implication; Anchoring enhance investment decisions among the small and medium enterprise. In addition, high financial literacy improves the relationship between anchoring behaviour and investment decisions among SMEs. This would enhance better decision investment decisions improving the financial performance of the SMEs. ItemModerating Effect of Financial Innovations on the Relationship Between GDP Per Capita and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya(Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing Journal of Finance and Accounting, 2022-09-30) Mutai, Nelly ChelangatProfitability of commercial banks in Kenya have been declining since 2010 which was largely attributed to macro-economic factors, fiscal policies introduced by central bank of Kenya and market activities such as issuance of bonds and capping of interest rates. There has also been increased integration due to embracement of financial innovations in the banking sector however the moderating effects of financial innovations on the relationship between GDP per capita and financial performance is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of financial innovation on the relationship between GDP per capita and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was based on two theories: Keynesian Economics theory and Constraint Induced Financial Innovation Theory. The study utilized secondary data for 10-year period as from 2011 to 2020. The target population of the study was 42 commercial banks that are licensed and supervised by the Central Bank of Kenya. Secondary panel data on financial performance of Commercial Banks was obtained from the individual institutions’ financial reports while data on macroeconomic factors was obtained from both Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Return on assets was used to measure financial performance. The study found a significant and positive relationship (b=0.594, t=2.939, p=0.022) between GDP per capita and ROA. The study found no moderating effect of financial innovations on the relationship between GDP per capita and financial performance of commercial banks. The study recommends that banks should implement the highest degree of innovations, which will enable them achieve very high ROA. ItemDO SELF-AWARENESS AND SELF-REGULATION AFFECT KNOWLEDGE SHARING BEHAVIOR? EVIDENCE FROM KENYAN UNIVERSITIES: INTELLIGENCE UNMASKED(Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 2019-12-30) Biwott, Geoffrey; et.al.Universities have been identified as an accelerated centers of Knowledge sharing and changing behaviors of scholars as a critical asset for universities and this study paper deepens the understanding that Self-Awareness and Self-Regulation affect Knowledge Sharing Behavior among academic staff at universities in Kenya as an intelligence drive for modern universities in Kenya in harnessing knowledge to explore intelligence-sharing behaviors. Both concepts are individual responses as they understand and know one another even in Universities to strive for improved knowledge sharing between individuals. The study aimed at examining whether Self-Awareness and Self-Regulation affects Knowledge Sharing Behaviors among academic staff at universities in Kenya. Explanatory study was used to target a population of 6,423 and a sample size of 376 academic staff academic staff at Kenyan universities in Nairobi County was selected using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The findings of the research revealed that self-awareness (β = 0.37, p<0.05), and self-regulation (β = 0.11, p<0.05), had a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing behavior. Also R was 81% and R2 was 66%. Concluding that emotional self-awareness and self regulation are crucial to transforming universities in Kenya in achieving knowledge sharing behavior. Self-awareness and self-regulation in universities in Kenya have relatively been downplayed by government, respective institutions and scholars especially in harnessing knowledge yet the study contributes immensely that for leadership of universities in Kenya to drive, staff who must be self aware and self-regulated in their emotions for free exchange of ideas and knowledge sharing ItemKnowledge management and employee engagement in the hospitality industry(INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (IJRBS), 2022-08-28) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alKnowledge management is becoming indispensable in organizations since it is a powerful weapon for achieving competitive advantage. However, there is still a dearth of literature for employees and managers in organizations to link their investments in knowledge management and the value the organization gets in terms of employee engagement. This study was designed to assess knowledge management and employee engagement in the hospitality industry in the North Rift region of Kenya. An explanatory research design was adopted with a target population of 580 employees from star rated hotels in the North Rift region out of which a sample size of 234 respondents was picked. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version 25.0 for quantitative data and thematic analysis of interview data. From findings, knowledge management explained a 50.4 percent variation in employee engagement. A coefficient of .728 indicated that a unit change in knowledge management leads to .728 units of positive change in employee engagement. Knowledge management significantly affects employee engagement thus the rejection of the null hypothesis. The hospitality business should invest in proper employee knowledge-sharing initiatives to enhance employee competence and motivation, resulting in high levels of engagement. The finding of this study can help major stakeholders in the hospitality industry to strengthen knowledge management for employee engagement. ItemCurrent State of Sustainability Reporting:(EJBMR, European Journal of Business and Management Research, 2020-04-30) Ojera, Patrick B.; Odoyo, Collins O.Corporate sustainability reporting, also known as Triple-bottom-line reporting, involves reporting nonfinancial and financial information to a broader set of stakeholders than just shareholders and seek to fortify an organization’s ability to manage key risks. The current case is that, the quality, rigor, and utility of sustainability reporting remains contentious with concerns about the suitability of the criteria or standards used to prepare the reports. Despite the rapid increase in the number of companies around the world adopting Global Reporting Initiative standards, little is known about the extent of practice of corporate sustainability reporting in public universities in Kenya. The study selected five universities that had their 2017-18 audited financial reports available online for the readers, which served as the main source of secondary data. The guidelines on corporate sustainability reporting was derived from literature review, which provided key indicators upon which the data from each university was evaluated. It was observed that almost all the institutions recognize the critical role of both internal and external independent audit of financial statements. In conclusion, financial reporting sustainability is guided by strict compliance to the factors of sustainability. ItemEffect of Budgetary Control on Financial Performance:(IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF), 2021-10-30) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alManufacturing sector plays a vital role in providing livelihoods and national revenues, incomes, employment and foreign exchange savings to Kenya. The core problem affecting Kenya sugar industry is the persistent deterioration in profitability and liquidity. At the moment, five public-owned mills are indebted to the tune of over One hundred billion shillings. Budgetary control is one of the major technic used in planning and control function of any organization. Previous research has been done on the effect of budgetary control on financial performance of other institutions. However, no research has been done on its effect on financial performance of sugar manufacturing companies. The general objective was to investigate the effect of budgetary control on financial performance through a comparative study of sugar manufacturing company in western Kenya. The specific objectives were: to examine the effect of budgetary planning, budgetary implementation, budgetary variance analysis and budgetary evaluation on financial performance of sugar manufacturing companies. A descriptive survey research design was applied. Purposive sampling was used to select individual respondents to participate in the study; respondent was staff dealing with finance and budgeting cost centers. A sample of respondents was collected from Butali and Nzoia Sugar Company (this represents public and private sector in western region). Primary data was used while the instrument of data collection was questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics analyses were used. The survey under descriptive analysis revealed that, budgetary planning had a direct positive impact on financial performance, budgetary implementation had a direct positive impact on financial performance, budgetary variance analysis had a direct positive impact on financial performance and budgetary evaluation had a direct positive impact on financial performance. In conclusion, budgetary control is key to financial performance process of the firms analyzed in the survey and therefore the survey recommends that all the budgetary control processes should apply as a tool for financial control. The study recommends that there is a gap to focus on other factors that could influence financial performance after having looked at budgetary control that is well functional but the industry is still persistent deterioration in profitability and liquidity accompanied with a lot of debts. ItemEffect of Financing Decisions on Performance of Housing Cooperative Societies in North Rift Counties, Kenya(Africa International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (AIJMR), 2020-10-30) Ojera, Patrick B.; Oseno, Ben; Ronoh, Hellen JerubetHousing is one of the largest concerns facing most countries of the world, where the increase in the numbers of the population are not corresponding with the available housing facilities. The huge demand of housing has resulted in making the housing sector to be one of the lucrative sectors to venture into in Kenya but unfortunately, lack of adequate information on financial management practices, greed and insufficient resources having replaced reason, has led to contractors constructing buildings that are extremely unfit for human occupation, stalled structures and low returns on housing sector investors. This has prompted the Kenyan government to recognize housing as one of the big four agenda of the current Jubilee government. Specifically, the study determined the effect of financing decisions on performance of housing cooperatives in North Rift Counties in Kenya. The study was guided by. The study used descriptive survey design. The study targeted 90 respondents from 12 housing cooperatives registered by NACHU in the North Rift Region. The respondents included all the management committee members, credit committee members and finance officers of all housing cooperatives in the North Rift Region. The study adopted a mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques in data collection and analysis. Primary data was used and the data collected using open self-structured questionnaires. Content validity was used to determine the validity while Cronabach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of research instrument. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. For descriptive statistics frequency tables, percentages and means were used and for inferential statistics correlation and regression analysis were used. The SPSS Version 24 helped in the data analysis. The study findings indicated that there was a positive and significant effect of financing practices on performance of Housing Co-operative Societies (β=0.456; p<0.05. These findings will be of great significance to managers and policy makers to open an insight on the policies which will enhance the performance of the housing cooperatives. It will also provide input for further research works to be conducted on the housing cooperative societies in the future. ItemRole of strategic purchasing and supply management practices in firm performance:(Global Advanced Research Journal of Social Science (GARJSS), 2013-08-27) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alIn a census survey of 183 senior executives of public bus transport firms in Nairobi, Kenya, effect of strategic purchasing and supply management practices on performance was sought. A cross sectional survey design was adopted. Secondary and primary data were used. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, multiple regressions were used to analyze data. Content analysis was performed on interview schedule results and other qualitative data. The results indicated that Strategic purchasing and supply management practices were high among the firms and positively and significantly predict public bus transport firm performance. The adjusted R2 value was found to be 0.398 implying that strategic purchasing and supply management practices accounted for 39.8% of the variance in the public bus transport firm performance. The results show that public bus transport firms practicing strategic purchasing and supply management have improved performance. This is important to the practitioners in the industry and other industries and the government as it implies that more emphasis should be made on this area. The regression results indicate a high error term that should be investigated further. ItemEffective Management of Strategic Issues in the Insurance Industry, Kenya(European Journal of Business and Management, 2015-01-30) Ojera, Patrick B.; Swalehe, Mkamunduli A.; et.alThe purpose of this study is to examine how companies could prepare themselves to deal effectively with strategic issues affecting them with particular reference to the insurance industry in Kenya. This follows the turbulent environment in which the insurance industry in general and the Kenyan insurance industry in particular are currently operating in: international competition, the rapid technological changes, regional integration and globalization, change in customer needs and preference among others. These pressures have created the need to explore the current strategic issue management practices in the insurance companies in Kenya. In order to meet this objective, a census of all 38 insurance firms in Kenya was conducted by use of questionnaires. The findings led to the conclusions that, although most insurance companies in Kenya study strategic issues affecting their operations, none demonstrated the use of superior methods such as the European matrix method. ItemContribution of Foreign Direct Investment on the Growth of Agro-Processing Sector :(European Journal of Business and Management, 2015-12-31) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alWorld Investment Report’s like United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) detail trends in global foreign direct investments in which Kenya is ranked below its neighbours and other emerging markets. This study evaluated the contribution of Foreign Direct Investment on the growth of Agro-Processing Sector. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of use of FDI and its contribution on the growth of Agro processing sector. This study adopted a survey design. The study target population was 350 respondents. Sample size was 78 respondents selected using simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis and a 5 point Likert scale. Study results showed that Foreign Direct Investment in the Agro processing Sector influenced technology spill over, creation of employment opportunities and resource improvement; FDI accelerated to a greater extent growth in the sector; and a positive relationship existed between FDI and growth of the agro processing sector; correlation oefficients determined confirmed a positive association between FDI and growth of the sector where production volumes and profit are output variables that measure growth in the agro-processing sector. ItemEffect of Organizational Justice on Employee Engagement in the Hospitality Industry(European Journal of Business and Management Research www.ejbmr.org, 2022-07-04) Ojera, Patrick B.This study was designed to asses’ organizational justice and employee engagement in the hospitality industry in North Rift region, Kenya. With a sample size of 234 respondents, an explanatory research design was used with a target population of 580 employees from star-rated hotels in the North Rift region. Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather information. SPSS version 25.0 was used to analyze the data using descriptive and inferential statistics. From the findings employee engagement and organizational justice have a strong significant relationship. Employee engagement was explained by organizational justice at 71.8%. The study's findings support the necessity to improve organizational justice in order to increase employee engagement. The findings of this study can assist the government (both national and county levels), as well as important stakeholders in the hotel industry, in identifying the need for developing organizational justice policies and practices to realize employee engagement ItemThe Effect of Competitive Advantage on the Relationship between Strategic Change and Performance of Firms in the Alcohol Industry in Kenya(iJARS GROUP, 2016-06-15) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alThis paper examined the effect of competitive advantage on the relationship between strategic change and firm characteristics on performance of firms in the alcohol industry in Kenya. Previous studies dwelt on effect of limited aspects of strategic change such as marketing leaving out critical aspects like scope of strategies, resource deployment patterns and competitive advantages. The study was underpinned by the Resource-Based Theory (RBT). The study adopted a mixed method survey research design using qualitative and quantitative methods. The population was 25 local firms registered by Kenya Revenue Authority by 2012 and approved by National Authority for the Campaign Against Alcohol and Drug Abuse, (NACADA) by 2015. A saturated sample consisted of 100 respondents to get primary data. Correlation and regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between competitive advantage and organizational performance. Pearson correlation was used to describe how the variables were related and the strengths of the relationship between competitive advantage and organizational performance. Findings revealed that there was a fairly strong significant positive correlation between competitive advantage and organizational performance. ItemModerating effect of organization culture on the relationship between quality management system adoption and performance of public universities in Kenya(African Journal of Business Management, 2021-02-27) Ojera, Patrick B.; Obura, Johnmark; et.alThe capacity of higher education institutions (HEIs) to serve as drivers to economic competitiveness has been negatively impacted due to the exponential growth and numerous constraints which interfere with their quality. In Kenya, HEIs, in their attempt to cater for the 28% increase in number of students, 6% government capitation cut and 14.3% of the 28 weeks, academic year time waste between 2014 and 2015, have encountered many challenges caused by overcrowding, crumbling infrastructure, inadequate human capital with 1:500 lecturers to student ratio and financial resources and declining quality of the professional courses on offer. They have raised concerns about the quality of public university education. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of organization culture on the relationship between Quality Management System (QMS) adoption and organization performance of public universities in Kenya. The study was guided by structural contingency theory and equity theory; using a census survey with a Bureau of Standards. The study results revealed organization culture (β=0.492 p=0.030) moderated the relationship significantly implying the interactive effect of organization culture improved organization Performance by 0.7% (Δ R2 .007p=0.030). The study concluded that organization culture increases the effect of QMS adoption on organizational performance. response at 94.41% on a population 215 top management personnel of 11 public universities certified by the Kenya ItemEffect of Business Risk on Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in North Rift Counties, Kenya(International Journal of Finance, Accounting and Economics (IJFAE), 2020-10-30) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alSaccos perform an important role in the financial sector in Kenya by providing savings and credit services to a large portion of the population. Dividend decision is the policy that the management formulates in regard to earnings for distribution as dividends among shareholders. The determinants of dividend decisions include, Sacco returns, Sacco size, business risks, growth opportunities among others. Saccos and more so deposit taking Saccos need to issue dividends to their members. Deposit taking Saccos in Kenya and the North Rift in particular has to adjust their way of doing business in order to maximize the shareholder value and increase the market share. The main purpose of this study is to establish the determinants of dividends policy decisions on performance of deposit taking Saccos’ in North Rift Counties, Kenya. Specifically, the study determined the effect of business risk on performance of deposit taking Saccos’ Rift Counties in Kenya. The study was guided by Agency theoy. The target population was all nine Saccos that had been registered by SASRA in the North Rift Region by the end of July 2018. The respondents included all the management and board members of the deposit taking Saccos in the North Rift Region. Primary data and secondary data was used and the data was collected using open ended questionnaires. Data was be analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The SPSS Version 24 was used to aid in the data analysis. The study established that Sacco returns had a positive and significant effect on performance of deposit taking Saccos (β= 0.170; p< 0.05). The findings of the study were of great significance to managers and policy makers to make policies which enhances the performance of the Saccos. The finding also does provide input for future academic works to be conducted on the Sacco performance. ItemInfluence of Adherence to Quality Management System Standards on Access to Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya(IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 2018-02-18) Ojera, Patrick B.; et.alIn Kenya, Over 3,100 Children Die Annually For Using Unsafe Water And Poor Sanitation. In The 2015/2016 Financial Year, Access To Water In Kenya Stood At 54% For Urban And 51% For Rural Areas. This Low Access To Water And Sanitation Services Could Be As A Result Of The Management Practices In The Water Services Providers. Previous Studies Have Revealed The Unsuccessful Attempts To Improve Access Of Water And Sanitation Services Through Privatization And Structural Reforms In The Water Sector.These Studies Did Not Assess How Management Practices Such As The Quality Management System Can Enhance Access To Water And Sanitation Services. The Objective Of The Study Was To Determine The Influence Of The Level Of Adherence To Quality Management System Standards On Access To Water And Sanitation Services. The Study Adopted A Combination Of Descriptive And Explanatory Research Designs. The Target Population Consisted Of The 86 Water Service Providers In Kenya. The Sample Comprised 70 Water Service Providers Who Were Selected Using The Stratified Random Sampling. The Respondents Of The Study Included The 70 General Managers Of The Selected Water Service Providers. Primary Data Was Collected By The Use Of Questionnaires. Secondary Data Was Obtained From The 2016 /2017 WASREB Report. The Instruments Were Tested For Validity And Reliability Through The Content Validity Index (CVI=0.833) And The Cronbach Alpha’ s Internal Consistency Index (A=0.773) For Reliability. The Study Found That Thelevel Of Adherence To Quality Management System Standards Significantly Influenced The Access To Water And A Sanitation Service In Kenya (T=15.7, P<0.05).The Study Recommended That The Management Of The Water Service Providers Should Strengthen The Level Of Adherence To Quality Management System Standards To Enhance Access To Water And Sanitation Services To The Members Of The Public. ItemInfluence of Strategic Management Practices on Access to Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya(iJARS International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, 2018-04-18) Ojera, Patrick B. Ojera; et.alGlobally, more than 3.4 million people die each year from water, sanitation and hygiene-related causes, 99 percent of these deaths occur in the developing world. In the 2015/2016 financial year, access to water in Kenya stood at 54% for urban and 51% for rural areas. This low access to water and sanitation services could be as a result of the management practices in the water services providers. Previous studies have revealed the unsuccessful attempts to improve access of water and sanitation services through privatization and structural reforms in the water sector.These studies did not assess how management practices such as the strategic management practices can enhance access to water and sanitation services. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the strategic management practices on access to water and sanitation services. The study adopted a combination of descriptive and explanatory research designs. The target population consisted of the 86 water service providers in Kenya. The sample comprised of 70 water service providers who were selected using the stratified random sampling. The respondents of the study included the 70 general managers of the selected water service providers. Primary data was collected by the use of questionnaires. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability through the content validity index (CVI=0.833) and the Cronbach Alpha’s internal consistency index (a=0.773) for reliability. the study found out that the influence of level of application of strategic management practices on access to water and sanitation services was statistically significant recording Adjusted R2 =0.59 (t=7.2, p<0.05).The study recommended that the water service providers should use well-structured planning mechanism, have well written mission and vision, base decisions and actions on formulated organization policies and use resource control teams to ensure the access to water and sanitation services to its customers is enhanced . ItemIndigenous Management Practices in Africa(Emerald insight, 2018-07-27) Ojera, PatrickThe purpose of this chapter is to identify African financial management practices, highlight their origin and explain how they differ from their Western counterparts. The study identified indigenous African financial practices using literature review, archival sources and library research covering the five areas of Africa comprising Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Central Africa Western Africa and Southern Africa. The study found out that pre-colonial indigenous African financial manage ment features prevalent use of trade finance, trade credit management, investment management and accounting. While there is also evidence of modification of Western financial management practices to suit African contexts, it is on the whole scarce. This is suggestive of the fact that they were in existence in the first instance. The clear conclusion is that many indigenous African financial management prac tices pre-dated and foreshadowed their Western counterparts. Yet, it is confounding that this has been largely lost sight of, and both scholars and financial management practitioners depict the former as inferior. There is clearly a need to remedy this situation. Educators need to focus on incorporating ethno-finance concepts into the entire curricula chain from basic to higher education. The anchor point for such curricula is Ubuntu philosophy. Financial management practitioners, on their part, need to shed notions that the indigenous practices are inferior and seek to journalise their day-to-day work experiences to build a body of documented practice.